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Common metal powders and their features


Common metal powders and their features


(A) copper powder: obtained by electrolysis, the particle shape is dendritic, rose-red, dark after oxidation and black powder in severe cases.As a binder material, the main advantages of copper powder are: electrolytic copper powder molding good, widely used in cold pressing sintering;Pure copper has good compatibility with carbides and skeleton materials, such as W and WC;Copper and Sn, Zn, Mn, Ni, Ti and other properties of excellent alloy, the price is much lower than cobalt powder.


(B) iron powder: reduced iron powder, electrolytic iron powder and carbonyl iron powder. As the name suggests, reduced iron powder is made by reduction method, electrolytic iron powder is made by electrolysis method, and carbonyl iron powder is made by thermal dissociation of carbonyl compounds.As a binder material, iron powder has the following advantages: low price and good wettability with diamond;It has good compatibility with WC.When sintering at a certain temperature, the mild etching of iron on diamond does not lose the strength of diamond, but improves the holding force of diamond in the matrix.The essence of etching is the process in which carbon atoms in diamond dissolve into iron and diffuse into it.


(C) cobalt powder: irregular spongy, obtained by reduction method, has the best comprehensive performance as a binder.It is a kind of excellent binder material, which is widely used in developed countries.The bending strength of the matrix can be improved.High adhesion to diamond and good wettability;Good toughness and self - sharpness of the matrix.Due to the high price, there are a lot of researches on cobalt substituted with iron in China. By selecting the right powder and reasonable sintering process, the similar properties of cobalt-based binder can be obtained.

Cobalt is expensive;Loose packing density is too small, easy to cause feeding difficulties.In addition, the design width and height of the pressing grinding tool are increased, and the height of the hot pressing mold for manual charging is increased, thus the cost of the mold is increased.


(D) nickel powder: irregularly dendritic, obtained by electrolysis.Advantages: suitable for making tools under heavy load, with excellent strength and toughness;The sintering loss of fe-cu matrix matrix can be reduced (cu-ni infinite miscibility).Nickel can be combined with iron and cobalt to obtain satisfactory comprehensive properties, such as small deformation and moderate wear resistance.Close to or equal to the performance of cobalt matrix matrix.


(E) tin powder: the particles are in the shape of drops, and the powder is off-white, which is easy to be oxidized and yellow after oxidation.The function of tin powder in binder is: improve the sinterability of matrix (reduce melting point);Easy to form intermetallic compounds, can improve the wear performance and deformation;It is suitable to be added to the compacted matrix, the capillary phenomenon after sintering and melting makes the matrix shrink, thus increasing the density of the matrix.The surface tension of liquid alloy is reduced and the wettability of diamond is improved.Its drawback is: join too much, easy to cause loss.


(F) tungsten powder: blue-black, micron grade powder, made by reduction method, tungsten has good compatibility with copper, iron, cobalt and nickel;WC is generated on the diamond surface during sintering, but graphitization does not occur on the diamond surface.Increase the wear resistance of the matrix and reduce the deformation;As a skeleton material, wear resistance is not as good as WC, but the toughness of the matrix can be increased.The deficiency is that the porosity of sintered blank is large, so the temperature and pressure must be increased to increase the sintering density


(G) tungsten carbide: black, without mechanical inclusion, porous and spongy, obtained by reduction method.The sulfur content of impurities should be tested. Sulfur may easily lead to blackening of sintered section (sulfide is generated during sintering), greatly reducing the strength of the tool head.Tungsten and tungsten carbide are mainly added to the matrix as skeleton materials to improve the wear resistance of the matrix.