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Metal powder has been an important part of the 3D printing i

2019-03-07
Metal powder has been an important part of the 3D printing industry chain of metal parts
 
The metal powder used in 3D printing generally requires high purity, good sphericity, narrow particle size distribution and low oxygen content.At present, the metal powder materials used in 3D printing mainly include titanium alloy, cobalt-chromium alloy, stainless steel and aluminum alloy materials, etc., in addition, there are gold, silver and other precious metal powder materials used for printing jewelry.As the most important link in the 3D printing industry chain of metal parts, 3D printing metal powder is also the biggest value.
 
Titanium alloy has the advantages of high temperature resistance, high corrosion resistance, high strength, low density and biocompatibility, and has been widely used in aerospace, chemical, nuclear industry, sports equipment and medical equipment and other fields.Titanium alloy parts prepared by traditional forging and casting technology have been widely used in the high-tech field. The titanium content of a Boeing 747 aircraft has reached 42.7t.However, traditional forging and casting methods for the production of large titanium alloy parts, due to the high cost, complex process, low material utilization rate and subsequent processing difficulties and other adverse factors, hinder its wider application.Metal 3D printing technology can fundamentally solve these problems, so the technology in recent years has become a new technology to directly manufacture titanium alloy parts.Development of new titanium - based alloys is the main direction of titanium alloy SLM application.Due to the low strain hardening index (approximately 0.15) of titanium and titanium alloys, their resistance to plastic shear deformation and wear resistance are poor, thus limiting their use in high temperature and corrosion wear conditions.
 
Stainless steel has the characteristics of chemical corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance and good mechanical properties, etc. Due to its good powder molding, simple preparation process and low cost, it is the first material used in 3D metal printing.For example, huazhong university of science and technology, nanjing university of aeronautics and astronautics, Northeastern University and other universities have conducted in-depth research on metal 3D printing.The present research mainly focuses on the reduction of porosity, increase of strength and the spheroidization mechanism of metal powders in the melting process.Li ruidi et al. carried out SLM forming test on 304L stainless steel powder with different process parameters, obtained the empirical formula of density of 304L stainless steel, and summarized the grain growth mechanism.
 
High temperature alloy
High temperature alloy refers to as the base, iron, nickel and cobalt in the high temperature of 600 ℃ above and must be long-term work stress environment of metal materials.It has high temperature strength, good thermal corrosion and oxidation resistance and good plasticity and toughness.At present, the alloy matrix can be roughly divided into three categories: fe - based, ni - based and co - based alloys.High temperature alloy is mainly used in high performance engines. In modern advanced aero-engines, the usage of high temperature alloy material accounts for 40% ~ 60% of the total engine mass.The development of modern high performance aero-engine requires more and more high temperature and performance of superalloy.In the traditional ingot casting metallurgy process, the cooling speed is slow, some elements in the ingot and the second phase segregation are serious, the hot working performance is poor, the microstructure is uneven, and the performance is unstable.3D printing technology has become a new method to solve the technical bottleneck in high temperature alloy forming.NASA says a 3d-printed rocket engine nozzle produced a record 9t of thrust during a high-temperature ignition test on August 22, 2014.
 
The in-depth application of 3D printing technology in the field of industry, biomedicine and cultural creativity promotes the combination of 3D printing with traditional technologies such as aerospace, military industry, automobile and parts, industrial design, cultural creativity, innovative education, orthopedics, major surgery, rehabilitation and cultural relic restoration.