hafnium hydride is a refractory, face-centered cubic or tetragonal crystal that is formed by reacting hafnium with hydrogen gas. It is typically produced as an intermediate in the process of making hafnium powder from mass hafnium metal.
The structure of most transition metal hydrides is CaF2 (Fm-3m space group) where the metal atoms form a face-centered cubic lattice while the hydrogen atoms occupy the tetrahedron centers. The group IVB dihydrides TiH2, ZrH2 and HfH2 display a much more basic face-centered tetragonal (fct) cell structure of the I4/mmm space group and exhibit fascinating superconducting properties6,7,8.
A comprehensive investigation of the pressure-induced phase transformations and properties of a unique, high-Tc superconductor, HfH2, under high pressure has been performed using structural searches, first-principle calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that a metastable stochiometric HfH9 is formed by the stabilization of a unique, H12 tube-like structure in a HfH3 framework under 200 GPa.
Hydrogen-rich hydrides are important materials in search of exotic properties such as high-Tc superconductivity3,4 and the existence of diverse hydrogen chemistries at high pressure is key to these efforts5,6. This study provides a new insight into the chemistry of hydrogen-rich hydrides, which will lead to better understanding of their structural and electronic properties under high pressure.
The bonding nature of HfH2 is studied by electron localization function (ELF), difference charge density and Bader charge analyses, which reveal that the ionic bond is formed between Hf and H atoms and that HfH2 is classified as an ionic crystal with the charges transferring from Hf to H atoms. These findings are complemented by the structural studies of I4/mmm, Cmma and P21/m at 100, 200 and 250 GPa, which show that the HfH2 can be characterized as a stable crystalline phase under these conditions.
Modified Tribo-Phosphorylated Phosphoric Acid (modtp) is an additive in lubricants that imparts antifriction, antiwear, and antioxidation properties. It can be used in engine oils, hydraulic oils and greases.
Compared with other tribo-polyphosphates, molybdenum dialkyl phosphorodithioate (modtp) complexes have a higher tribological performance at low temperatures and low loads. In addition, it has good oxidation resistance, which can extend the shelf life of lubricants.
Four modtp complexes with alkyl chain lengths ranging from C5 to C10 have been synthesized and their antifriction, antiwear and antioxidant properties have been characterized vis-a-vis commercial molybdenum dithiophosphate. The synthesized products exhibit appreciable anti-friction, antiwear and antioxidant performance in mineral oil, base oil and finished engine oil and are comparable to commercial modtp.
The tribological behavior of piston ring sliding against grey cast iron cylinder liner under the lubrication of petroleum based engine oil SJ/5W-30 containing molybdenum dithiocarbomate (MoDTC) or molybdenum dithiophosphate (modtp) was studied in reciprocating test rigs at different temperatures. The friction coefficient curve of both compounds exhibited a "V" shape when the test temperature increased from 125degC to 320degC.
The tribofilm formed by MoDTC was mainly composed of MoS2 while that formed by modtp was largely composed of FePO
Electrical conductivity is the ability of a material to carry current. Titanium is a poor conductor of electricity as its outermost orbital 4s2 is completely filled leaving electrons in the down orbital 3d2 that are unavailable for carrying current through it.
The electrical properties of titanium vary with temperature. When it is heated, its electrical conductivity decreases as electrons are lost from the atom.
Nitride is a compound formed by a nitrogen atom and a metal. It is commonly used as a dielectric coating to protect or harden the surfaces of conductive metals such as copper and insulator materials like thermal oxides.
Typical applications of nitride include creating a barrier layer between a silicon chip and a metal contact. It is also used as a conductive connection between metal connectors on microelectronic circuit boards.
Refractory nitrides, such as TiN, have fascinating superconducting properties. When a thin film of TiN is chilled to absolute zero, it converts into a first-ever superinsulator!
It is used to coat the edges of metal parts and tools such as drill bits, milling cutters, and punches. The coating increases lubricity and reduces friction, improving tool life up to 7 times over uncoated tools. It also improves corrosive resistance and minimizes galling between sliding mold components.
Tantalum nitride TaN powder can be used as an additive for superhard materials to produce pure tantalum pentachloride, which can be sprayed and improve the electrical stability of transformers, integrated circuits, and diodes. It is a low-cost, high-performance nanomaterial that is suited for spraying and application in various industries.
nano diamond oil additive is an innovative product that uses nanotechnology to increase engine efficiency and reduce fuel consumption by improving lubrication. It works to prevent wear and damage to important engine parts such as flat tappets, valve trains, and rocker arms, while also reducing oxidation.
Nano-Lubrication Technology is a new nanotechnology that uses nanodiamond particles to form a tribofilm that can help reduce friction and wear between engine parts. Nanodiamond particles also bind to tribo-components in an engine oil, and this synergistic interaction can result in improved performance and fuel efficiency.
Nanodiamonds are an effective antiwear additive because they can significantly suppress the wear for ball-on-disk friction surfaces and provide a carbon tribo-film that helps lower the coefficient of friction (COF). The ND particles can reduce friction, energy loss, and power loss by forming a tribofilm on rubbing surfaces that are in direct contact with each other.
The ND particles interact with the tribo-components in the engine oil, and this can result in enhanced performance and fuel efficiency by forming a tribofilm that is stable. Moreover, the ND particles can effectively reduce friction, energy loss, and power loss in a wide range of lubrication conditions by synergistically interacting with the tribo-components.
The ND particles can be used as an effective antiwear additive in an engine oil by forming a carbon tribofilm that is stable, and this can help reduce friction and wear between engine parts. The ND particles can reduce friction, energy, and power loss in a wide range from boundary lubrication to mixed lubrication where sliding surfaces are in direct contact with each other.
cobalt chromium molybdenum is an alloy of metals, which is a so-called super-alloy and is used for high temperature applications. It contains 65%-75% of cobalt, 15%-25% of chromium and 3%-7% of molybdenum.
This material is widely used in industrial applications such as batteries, super alloys, magnets and corrosion-resistant alloys. It has excellent wear resistance and is also biocompatible.
A cobalt-chromium molybdenum alloy is used in medical equipment to make prosthetic limbs that are strong and durable but do not cause harm to the human body. The alloy is a promising candidate for total knee replacement systems.
In addition, this material is also used in medical devices to replace kidneys and livers. Its mechanical properties and high temperature stability make it a good candidate for these procedures.
These characteristics make the cobalt-chromium molybdenum super alloy a popular choice for these implants. The alloy can be shaped, drilled and polished to suit the specific requirements of the patient and its implant.
The cobalt-chromium molybdenum is one of the most important materials for high-end orthopedic implants. It has good corrosion resistance, biocompatibility and can be easily implanted into the body.
Cobalt is a trace element found naturally in the earth's crust, incorporated into various rock minerals and ores. It is essential for human health and can be found in the active sites of a group of enzymes called coenzymes, particularly vitamin B12.
chromium carbide powders are used for a variety of applications in the industrial manufacturing industry. These powders are extremely hard, provide a low coefficient of friction surface finish, and offer excellent oxidation/corrosion resistance.
Various metallurgical processes can be used to produce chromium carbide powders into components, such as casting, sintering, and heat treating. These processes can be done in a single step or multiple steps.
In a thermal spray process, the chromium carbide powders are heated in a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) environment and sprayed on a substrate surface to form a hardface coating. This process is used to create parts and coatings that require greater corrosion and wear resistance.
The gamma ray irradiation of chromium carbide powders can promote the growth of carbide grains. Compared with the crystalline samples before mechanical alloying, the Cr3C2 and Cr7C3 particles were much larger in size after the irradiation.
These results indicate that gamma irradiation of chromium powders can promote the formation of carbide grains and provide better wear performance. Consequently, the application of this powder in bearings or seals is likely to be advantageous.
The synthesis of chromium carbide powder can be performed using an intimate mixture of carbon and chromium. This process is typically carried out at temperatures between lOO0 to 1500 C. This can be achieved by melting the mixture or a solid state reaction.
manganese oxide powder is a fine black to brown inorganic compound which occurs naturally as the mineral pyrolusite. It is a pigment for glass-making and also used as an additive in dry cell batteries, such as the alkaline battery and zinc-carbon battery.
American Elements specializes in producing ultra high purity Manganese Oxide with the smallest average grain sizes for use in semiconductor, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and physical vapor deposition (PVD) applications. As a result of these processes, manganese oxide powders have very high surface areas and are useful in coatings, optical and electrical applications.
READE's granulations include both coarse and low micron powders, with sizing up to -325 mesh available. These products are often utilized in sputtering targets, electrodes, and plasma displays.
As a result of its very low melting point, manganese oxide is also a good choice for sputtering targets in electronics and other electronic based manufacturing applications. The low heat of evaporation provides a stable substrate for conducting various types of ion beams, electron beams and plasma to achieve the desired final product.
The unique reactivity of manganese oxide has led to its application as a catalyst, additive and sensor in a wide range of chemical and biotechnological processes and applications. Additionally, this nanoparticle material has received considerable attention as an electronic conductive cathode for lithium ion batteries and has potential applications in solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen generation systems.
Aluminium carbide, al4c3, reacts with water to produce methane (CH4). This ionic compound is used in the aluminum metal industry as a catalyst, reducing agent and a desiccant.
The XRD patterns of an Al-C powder mixture as-milled for 60 h, after thermal treatment at 300-600 degC for 1h, are shown in Fig. 4. The relative intensity of the al4c3 (110) and Al (111) peaks increases as the annealing temperature is increased.
Nanocrystalline carbon particles are produced during milling, which enhance the reaction interface areas between C and Al and increase the diffusion rate of the composites. This results in a better annealing and an enhanced formation of the al4c3 phase, which is critical for the mechanical properties of the materials. In addition, the presence of nanosized al4c3 particles effectively hinders the grain growth phenomenon and increases microhardness of Al-C powder mixture particles after heat treatment.