With the development of nanotechnology, tungsten disulfide nanomaterials (WS2NM) have become a new choice for optical biosensors. The researchers reported using a simple method to make a hybrid material consisting of WS2 nanowires and hydroxylated MWCNTs (WS2/MWCNTs-OH). The substrate is screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE), which has the advantage of lowest cost, disposable and energy saving. Modified with WS2/MWCNTs-OH composites, the rate of sensitive and selective behavior was increased.
Based on the WS2 optical biosensor, when the analyte and the recognition component combine to form a complex, the optical biosensor can measure the surface change by using optical instruments. Biosensors based on optical fiber, evaporation wave fiber, resonance mirror, time-resolved fluorescence, interferometry and surface plasmon resonance are different types of optical sensors. These biosensors can be divided into two categories: direct and indirect.
Direct optical biosensors require compounds on the surface of transducers to generate signals, while indirect optical biosensors involve phosphors or chromophores as their tags to identify binding events and amplify signals. Although higher signal levels can be generated by indirect biosensor technology, they are limited by non-specific binding and high reagent costs in the labeling process.
Tungsten disulfide (WS2) QD can be used as a good candidate because of its excellent fluorescence properties. As an effective probe for dopamine (DA) fluorescence detection, WS2-QD has been used to evaluate colon cancer and detect c-Met protein in serum samples.
In some studies, WS2 is embedded between metal and graphene layers to increase the efficiency of biosensors. Considering that WS2 has the ability of two-dimensional covalent network, it is a suitable base for fixed biological species. Pingyao Wang et al reported that a fluorescent probe was developed by using two-dimensional WS _ 2 nanoparticles and core-shell upconversion nanoparticles modified by inducers as acceptors and donors respectively.
This new, sensitive and selective biosensor can be applied to the rapid and specific quantitative detection of Escherichia coli. In addition, because WS2 nanosheets contain a wide range of absorption spectra, they can be used as excellent energy receivers, thus improving the efficiency. Therefore, this fluorescent biosensor can be used as a platform to observe different bacterial pathogens by changing the relevant specific inducers.
The development of electrical conductivity and basic structural conductivity of WS2NM is very important for the design of biosensors. WS2 NM shows excellent electrical conductivity in electronic and biosensor devices. Hexagonal crystal is the basic structural unit of two-dimensional tungsten disulfide nanomaterials, in which two sulfur atoms combine with one tungsten atom to form a S-W-S interlayer. The bonding of the S-W-S layer is caused by the weak van der Waals force.
The properties of WS2 nanowires can be greatly changed by reducing their size to the range of nanoscale, and their active sites are located at their edges. Therefore, the electron band gap shifts from 1.4eV to 2.0eV in the whole bulk phase of the nanowires.
WS2 nanowires have been successfully recognized in various fields because of their huge specific surface area, good electrical conductivity and unique electronic structure.
WS2 nanosheets contain a single crystal structure with unique flake and porous shapes, as well as high specific surface area and electronic standards. A practical method to improve electromagnetic shielding effectiveness is to add conductive nanotubes to insulating polymer matrix. Jan Macutkevic et al claimed that because of the high aspect ratio of nanotubes, adding them to the insulating polymer matrix can effectively improve the electromagnetic shielding performance.
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tags: Gallium Nitride