The Roundtable on Tungsten Oxide
tungsten oxide is an oxide of tungsten, which is a transition metal. It is also known as tungsten trioxide, WO3, or tungsten(VI) oxide. It is a compound of oxygen and tungstic acid.
FT-IR spectra of WONFs and cWONFs
WONFs and cWONFs in tungsten oxide have different crystal systems and thus, different morphologies. They have a variety of properties that have led to different applications. WONFs are synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. They are also highly sensitive to H2O2 and can serve as an H2O2 sensor. They have excellent selectivity for H2O2 and also show intrinsic peroxidase-like activity.
WONFs are monoclinic and triclinic in nature. They are mixtures of Na2W4O13 and have a high surface energy. They are hexagonal in structure and have a large area. They have a high level of surface energy which is advantageous for the growth of nanocrystals.
Cs2WO4-based experiments examined the effect of Na+ cation upon WOx structure. The separation of well-separated rods gives WOx a flower-like appearance. This morphology is based on the acidic environment. In order to study this morphology, an aqueous solution of H2O2 was prepared.
WONFs were characterised by thermal analysis, XRD and SEM analysis. Peroxidase-like activity is also being investigated in cWONFs. The nanorods of cWONFs have a diameter of 8-15 nm. They have a d-spacing between 3.90 + 0.09 A.
WONFs and cWONFs are synthesized with low temperatures and high precursor concentrations. These crystals exhibit a high level of surface energy and a flower-like morphology. They can be characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy or SEM. They can also be characterized using TGA or DSC.
Electrochemical sensing was performed at pH 3.0. The solution showed excellent linearity and the pH value was directly related to the response. The solution was modified using Nafion (Nf) to enhance the ionic conductivity. The glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was also modified with Nf to conduct electrochemical analyses.
Photocatalytic, intrinsic and electrocatalytic properties
Various strategies for the improvement of photocatalytic and electrocatalytic properties of 2D nanomaterials have been proposed. Many literatures about 2D nanocatalysts have been incomplete. Therefore, more study is needed to clarify some of the most important aspects of these materials and rule out irrelevant explanations for specific photocatalytic reaction systems.
2D nanomaterials have electronic structures that can regulate the bond strength of reactants. These nanomaterials also have a large surface-active area, which can enhance the catalytic reactions on the material's surface. This can lower the photocatalytic material's desorption kinetic barrier.
Electrocatalysis involves fast carrier recombination and can be regulated by changing the electron distribution. In this process, the electrocatalytic overpotential is an important descriptor to evaluate the activity of an electrocatalyst. The overpotential value of 10 mA cm-2 corresponds to 12.3% solar-to-hydrogen efficiency.
The carrier transfer kinetics is the key to electrocatalysis's performance improvement. However, the stability of an electrocatalyst also plays an important role. Higher stability catalysts will produce a longer constant current. A lower Tafel slope indicates a faster electrocatalytic reaction kinetics. This is because a greater exchange current density indicates a lower reaction barrier.
The number of active sites per area in electrocatalysis is often calculated. This number is often linked to the structure-activity correlation for catalysts. It is difficult to determine the TOF value for heterogeneous electrocatalysts. ToF can be used to indicate reaction rate. In addition, this parameter can be used to compare the catalytic activities of different catalysts.
It is common for 2D nanocatalysts to be oxidized. This phenomenon is common. This can prevent the catalyst from recombination electron-hole pairs. However, enhanced catalytic activity in all media can be caused by increased surface-active site.
Morphology of the WONFs (and cWONFs)
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WO3 photoanodes have drawbacks
Recent research has focused on WO3 photoanodes. Although the photoanode is stable when anions are present, it is susceptible to photocorrosion. These phenomena are attributed to the presence of reactive intermediates. They are products of oxidation of anions in the electrolyte. They can cause electrode deactivation by altering the surface kinetics.
The electrolyte composition of the photoanode can determine the photostability of the electrode. Here we investigated the effects of different electrolyte anions on the photoanode. The electrolyte chemistry affects the formation of organic products and the stability of the electrode. In particular, glucose conversion into CO2 was different in sulfate and methanesulfonate electrolytes. The presence of glucose can also influence j-E plots, which are plots of photon-to-current conversion efficiency.
WO3 photoanodes exhibit stable oxygen evolution photocurrents in methanesulfonic acid electrolyte. In addition, photocurrents are comparable to those in lower pH solutions. This indicates that the photooxidation of glucose can be coupled with water splitting in photoelectrochemical cells. Photo-oxidation products will play an important role in PEC reactions that involve organic substrates.
We investigated the stability of a WO3 photoanode with an anolyte solution containing glucose. The anolyte contained 0.7 cm2 of illuminated WO3 surface area. We also used a simulated AM 1.5 G irradiation to record photocurrent densities vs. imposed potential plots. These graphs showed that photocurrents were comparable to those in lower pH solutions. However, IPCEs for WO3 photoanodes are higher. This may be due to the dispersion of visible light at the WO3-TiO2 interface.
To prevent chemical dissolution of the electrode, a tungsten peroxo species was avoided by applying Co-Pi OEC. Co-Pi OEC has been shown to decrease the rate of recombination near the flat band potential. This decreases recombination near the WO3-TiO2 boundary and also prevents the formation of surface-bound peroxo species.
Capping agent affects crystal morphology
XPS studies of Pt nanocubes revealed that their morphology is affected by the presence of a cap agent. PVP, CTAB, and oleylamine have been used as capping agents. The morphology and structure of these particles was characterized using Fourier-transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and XPS.
PVP-capped Pt NCs maintain their particle shape but lose their defined surface arrangement. This can be attributed to the strong capping behavior of PVP. CTAB-capped Pt NCs show less morphological change than PVP-capped Pt NCs, due to the strong stabilizing effect of CTAB. The structure of Pt NCs capped with OAm shows more electrochemically active surface area than uncapped Pt NCs. XPS studies revealed that OAm is still present on the Pt surface.
We observed that oleylamine/oleic acid-capped Pt NCs showed similar FTIR spectrum to unwashed NCs. This is due to the interaction of benzaldehyde molecules with Lewis acid sites, which lowers surface energy. These interactions stabilize the overall structure.
Oleylamine plays a significant role in Pt NC preparation, we found. In addition to capping, it plays a critical role in directing the formation of nanoparticies and the growth of calcite crystals. This capping agent, however, is not present in the Pt NCs that are unwashed.
In addition to the oleylamine-based capping agent, PVP was also used as a capping agent for Pt NCs. At a pass energy 10 eV, the high resolution XPS spectra for Pt 4 f could be obtained. However, these signals were not used for discrimination because of the presence of solvent/moisture residuals.
We found that deferoxamine molecules containing hydroxamic acids groups favor the formation of polynuclear compounds. However, the presence of these molecules leads to a formation of an organic-inorganic hybrid material. These structures are known as biomorphs. These structures are very similar in appearance to mineral morphologies.
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