Properties and Application Fields of Zirconia

Properties and Application Fields of Zirconia

2023-10-18 13:46:04  Blog

Zirconia is an inorganic compound with high hardness, high melting point, and high chemical stability, which has been widely used in many fields.

Technical data:



Crystalline phase


Particle size


ZrO2% (+ HfO2)


Al2O3% ≤








1. Basic knowledge of zirconia

Zirconia is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula ZrO2, usually appearing white or light yellow. It has a high melting point and hardness, good chemical stability and electrical insulation, as well as good wear and corrosion resistance. According to their different crystalline states, zirconia can be divided into different types, such as monoclinic zirconia, tetragonal zirconia, and cubic zirconia.

2. Properties of zirconia

physical property

The physical properties of zirconia include high melting point and high hardness. Under normal pressure, the melting point of zirconia is as high as 2700 ° C, and its hardness is also high. In addition, it has a small coefficient of thermal expansion, high chemical stability, and good electrical insulation and corrosion resistance.

Chemical property

The chemical properties of zirconia are characterized by high stability and difficulty in reacting with other substances. But at high temperatures, zirconia undergoes a reduction reaction, generating metallic zirconium and oxygen. In addition, zirconia can also form solid solutions with some metal oxides, which provides possibilities for its application in the fields of ceramics and metal materials.

3. Application of zirconia

Refractory materials

Zirconia is an excellent refractory material, widely used in the manufacturing process of steel, glass, ceramics, and aluminum industries due to its stable chemical properties and good thermal conductivity at high temperatures. In the steel industry, adding zirconia to refractory materials can improve their thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. In the glass and ceramic industries, zirconia can be used to improve  thermal stability of materials and increase their resistance to thermal shock.



Zirconia has excellent ionic conductivity and stability, making it a solid electrolyte material. In sensor manufacturing, utilizing the characteristics of zirconia, high-precision and stable oxygen sensors and fuel cell sensors can be manufactured. These sensors have extensive applications in fields such as environmental monitoring, automotive, and aerospace.

Ceramic manufacturing industry

Zirconia has high hardness, high melting point, good mechanical properties, and chemical stability, making it an important raw material for the ceramic manufacturing industry. When manufacturing advanced ceramics, such as engineering ceramics and structural ceramics, zirconia is often used as an additive to improve the hardness and strength of ceramics. In addition, zirconia can also improve the corrosion resistance and thermal stability of ceramics.

Electronics industry

Zirconia is an important electronic material with extensive applications in the manufacturing of high-temperature electronic devices and oxygen sensors. Due to its good thermal stability and high melting point, zirconia can work in high-temperature environments, making it have great potential in the manufacturing of high-temperature electronic devices. At the same time, zirconia can also be used as an oxygen sensor material for manufacturing high-precision oxygen sensors.

Biomedical field

Zirconia and its composite materials also have extensive applications in the biomedical field. Firstly, due to its good biocompatibility and low toxicity, it can be used to manufacture biological implant materials, such as dental implants and orthopedic implants. At the same time, zirconia-based materials can also serve as drug carriers for tumor treatment or antibacterial disinfection by loading drugs. In addition, the fluorescence characteristics of zirconia make it suitable for biological imaging, labeling, and tracking biological tissues and cells.

Superconducting material

Some zirconia superconducting materials can exhibit superconducting properties at low temperatures, which has potential application value for constructing high-capacity superconducting energy storage systems. In addition, these superconducting materials are of great significance for the manufacturing of high-precision magnetic devices and electromagnetic research.

Optical field

Zirconia has excellent optical properties and is widely used in fields such as optical components, window materials, and laser crystals. Due to its high transparency and low refractive index, zirconia can be used as a material for optical components such as lenses and mirrors. Meanwhile, some zirconia crystals have excellent laser performance and can be used to manufacture high-performance lasers.

Solar cells

Some zirconia-based materials have excellent optoelectronic properties and can be used as the raw materials for solar cells. These materials not only have high photoelectric conversion efficiency but also have good weather resistance and stability and can be used for a long time in outdoor environments. Therefore, zirconia-based solar cells have broad application prospects in the field of renewable energy.

4. Future Development of Zirconia

With the continuous development of technology, the application fields of zirconia will become more extensive. The development direction of zirconia in the future mainly includes the following aspects:

Development of High Purity Zirconia

With the increasing demand for material performance in some high-tech fields, the development of high-purity zirconia has become an important research direction. High-purity zirconia has advantages such as higher hardness and better chemical stability so that it can be applied in more high-end fields such as aerospace, electronics, semiconductors, etc.

Research and development of new zirconia preparation technology

At present, the preparation methods of zirconia mainly include the solid phase method, chemical vapor deposition method, sol-gel method, etc. However, these methods have problems such as complex preparation processes, high costs, and unsatisfactory product performance. 

Therefore, the research and development of new zirconia preparation technologies has become one of the important development directions, such as electrochemical methods, hydrothermal methods, etc. These new preparation technologies can simplify the preparation process, reduce costs, and improve the performance of the products.

Research on Zirconia Coating Materials

Zirconia coating material is a material with high hardness, high wear resistance, high chemical stability, and good biocompatibility. Therefore, it has broad application prospects in some specific fields. In the future, with the continuous development of coating preparation technology, the research on new zirconia coating materials has become one of the important research directions. These new coating materials can further improve the performance and service life of related materials and are widely used in fields such as automobiles, aerospace, biomedicine, etc.


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